Preparation of gaseous ammonia
Preparation of gaseous ammonia by heating ammonium hydroxide
One of the most convenient sources of gaseous ammonia is the strongest aqua ammonia. The simple application of heat suffices to drive off the ammonia which, when dried, is ready for use. The aqueous ammonia is placed in a flask fitted with a thistle-tube and a glass elbow. On gently warming, ammonia is driven off and passes through a gas washing-bottle containing a small quantity of strongest ammonia water, and then through a U-tube containing quicklime or fused soda-lime to dry the gas, which may be collected over mercury. Calcium chloride cannot be used to dry ammonia, as it forms a compound with the gas, and hence quicklime or soda-lime is recommended.
Chemical lecture experiments, by F. G. Benedict, 192, 1916.
Preparation of gaseous ammonia from ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide
Powdered ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide in equal quantities (about 40 g. of each) are placed in a 300 ml Erlenmeyer flask fitted with a glass elbow. On the application of gentle heat ammonia is rapidly evolved. The gas may be dried by conducting it through a U-tube containing calcium oxide or fused soda-lime. Almost invariably this method of collecting the gas may be used. If gaseous ammonia is needed it must be caught by downward displacement of air, otherwise the ammonia gas is passed into water until saturated.
Chemical lecture experiments, by F. G. Benedict, 192-193, 1916.
Preparation of gaseous ammonia from ammonium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide
Strong ammonium hydroxide is allowed to drop from a separating-funnel upon solid potassium hydroxide, preferably in the stick form, in a 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask. The dropping-funnel is placed in a two-holed rubber stopper, and a glass elbow conducts away the gaseous ammonia liberated. In the process of the reaction the contents of the flask become very cold from the volatilization of ammonia, and consequently the gas is quite dry. However, in all experiments where a perfectly dry gas is required it should be first conducted through a U-tube containing dry quick lime or soda-lime.
Similarly, to make ammonia for laboratory use the strongest ammonia water is dropped on porous anhydrous calcium chloride, great heat is evolved during this operation and the ammonia gas which passes over is almost pure. Additionally ammonia could be dried by passing over solid potassium hydroxide.
Chemical lecture experiments, by F. G. Benedict, 191-192, 1916.
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