Synthesis of acrylic acid

Preparation of acrylic acid

Preparation of acrylic acid

Preparation of acrylic acid

A mixture of 1000 g of acrylonitrile, 6 g of hydroquinone, 14 g of copper powder, 648 g of ice, and 1012 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid is heated gradually under a reflux condenser on a steam bath. The exothermic reaction is controlled by cautious application of heat, particularly during the first hour. Heating is continued for 48 hours, after which the mixture is cooled and the precipitated ammonium bisulfate is filtered off. The crude acid is distilled by dropping it into a distilling flask loosely packed with fine copper wire and heated to a bath temperature of 250°. The system is maintained under a pressure of about 10 mm., and the distillation receiver is packed in ice. Approximately 1000 g of clear, colorless distillate is obtained which is shown by analysis to be 86% acrylic acid free of sulfur and nitrogen.

J. Am. Chem. Soc., 67, 1227 (1945)


prop-2-enoic acid



InChI Key


Canonical SMILES


MeSH Synonyms

2-propenoic acid, acrylate, acrylic acid, acrylic acid, aluminum salt, acrylic acid, ammonium salt, acrylic acid, Ca (2:1) salt, acrylic acid, Ca (2:1) salt, dihydrate, acrylic acid, cobalt (2+) salt, acrylic acid, Fe (3+) salt, acrylic acid, magnesium salt, acrylic acid, potassium salt, acrylic acid, silver salt, acrylic acid, sodium salt, acrylic acid, zinc salt, Hystoacril

Depositor-Supplied Synonyms

ACRYLIC ACID, 2-Propenoic acid, 79-10-7, Propenoic acid, Acroleic acid, Propene acid, Vinylformic acid, prop-2-enoic acid, Ethylenecarboxylic acid, Carbomer, Polyacrylate, POLYACRYLIC ACID, Glacial acrylic acid, Acrylic acid, glacial, Acrylic acid, polymer, Carbopol, Acrylic polymer, Acrylic resin, Aron, Antiprex A, Kyselina akrylova, RCRA waste number U008, Versicol E9, Acrylic acid resin, Acrysol ase-75, Versicol E 7, Versicol E15, Poly(acrylic acid), Acrysol A 1, Acrysol A 3, Acrysol A 5, Acrysol AC 5, Carbopol 934p, Propenoate, Carbomer 940, Carbopol 940, Carbopol 960, Carboset 515, Primal Ase 60, Versicol K 11, Versicol S 25, Viscalex HV 30, Dispex C40, Acrysol WS-24, Cyguard 266, Joncryl 678, Jurimer AC 10H, Jurimer AC 10P, Nalfloc 636, Rohagit SD 15, Carboxy vinyl polymer, Good-rite K 37, Revacryl A 191, Dow Latex 354, Junlon 110, Propenoic acid polymer, Viscon 103, Good-rite K 702, Good-rite K 732, Polyacrylate elastomers, Acrylic acid, polymers, Caswell No. 009A, Good-rite WS 801, Acrylic acid homopolymer, Polymerized acrylic acid, Synthemul 90-588, Aron A 10H, Acido acrilio [Spanish], NSC 4765, Acide acrylique [French], Kyselina akrylova [Czech], Atactic poly(acrylic acid), Carboset Resin No. 515, RCRA waste no. U008, UNII-J94PBK7X8S, CCRIS 737, 2-Propenoic acid, homopolymer, OLD 01, PA 11M, PAA-25, CHEBI:18308, HSDB 1421, NSC4765, NIXOWILDQLNWCW-UHFFFAOYSA-N, P 11H, P-11H, WS 24, Acrysol A-1, EINECS 201-177-9, Revacryl A191, UN2218, WS 801, BRN 0635743, NCGC00166246-01, R968, AI3-15717, Poly(acrylic acid) solution, 9003-01-4, Acrylic acid sodium salt, 101360-15-0, 29862-29-1, 55927-87-2, 76050-42-5, XPA, Poly(acrylic acid) partial sodium salt solution, Acrylicacid, Carbomerum, Carbomere, Carbomero, Acide acrylique, Acido acrilio, Phytogel base, Acrylic polymers, 2-Propenoicacid, Synthalen K, prop-2-enoicacid, Acritamer 940, Carbopol CV 940, PubChem21090, Acrylic acid, inhibited, ACMC-1CHHZ, CH2=CHCOOH, DSSTox_CID_28, ACRYLIC ACID ;, AC1L1MUM, Carbomer 934 (NF), Carbomer 940 (NF), Carbomer 941 (NF), Carbomere [INN-French], Carbomerum [INN-Latin], Carbopol 910 (TN), Carbopol 934 (TN), Carbopol 940 (TN), Carbopol 941 (TN), Carboxypolymethylene resin, Carbomero [INN-Spanish], CALCIUMPOLYCARBOPHIL, Carbomer 934P (NF), Carbopol 934P (TN), Carbomer 1342 (NF), Carbopol 1342 (TN), UNII-9G2MAD7J6W, UNII-F68VH75CJC, AC1Q2A9H, AC1Q71VY, AC1Q71VZ, DSSTox_RID_79425, J94PBK7X8S, UNII-4Q93RCW27E, UNII-KD3S7H73D3, WLN: QV1U1, DSSTox_GSID_39229, 2-Propenic acid, homopolymer, UN 2218 (Salt/Mix), UNII-K679OBS311, Carbomer 940 [USAN:NF], 147230_ALDRICH, 181285_ALDRICH, 181293_ALDRICH, 192023_ALDRICH, 192031_ALDRICH, 192058_ALDRICH, 306215_ALDRICH, 306223_ALDRICH, 306231_ALDRICH, 323667_ALDRICH, 407585_ALDRICH, 416002_ALDRICH, 523925_ALDRICH, 535931_ALDRICH, AC1Q71W0, CHEMBL1213529, UNII-809Y72KV36, 01730_FLUKA, CTK1A2288, 5651-26-3 (silver salt), 181293_FLUKA, 9003-03-6 (ammonium salt), MolPort-000-871-611, 5698-98-6 (magnesium salt), LTBB002138, UNII-K61870Z308, ZINC895281, 14643-87-9 (zinc salt), ACRYLIC ACID, [1-14C], C3:1n-1, 10604-69-0 (ammonium salt), 15743-20-1 (aluminum salt), 25987-55-7 (calcium salt), NSC-4765, 10192-85-5 (potassium salt), 7446-81-3 (hydrochloride salt), Tox21_112372, 7023AF, ANW-43674, AR-1H6514, LMFA01030193, NSC106034, NSC106035, NSC106036, NSC106037, NSC112122, NSC112123, NSC114472, NSC165257, NSC226569, STL281870, AKOS000118799, DB02579, DB05384, LS-1772, MCULE-9352227082, NSC-106034, NSC-106035, NSC-106036, NSC-106037, NSC-112122, NSC-112123, NSC-114472, NSC-165257, NSC-226569, RP18305, RTR-025215, TRA0086478, CAS-79-10-7, 55488-18-1 (iron(3+) salt), 58197-53-8 (cobalt(2+) salt), 6292-01-9 (calcium[2:1] salt), AJ-24167, AK163245, AN-19482, AN-36929, DR000102, OR181227, OR249619, OR254740, OR254741, SC-46797, KB-174465, TR-025215, A0141, FT-0621875, ST24045909, 9003-04-7 (unspecified hydrochloride salt), 1312-EP2270113A1, 1312-EP2272935A1, 1312-EP2275469A1, 1312-EP2287940A1, 1312-EP2289965A1, 1312-EP2298753A1, 1312-EP2305033A1, 1312-EP2308857A1, 1312-EP2308861A1, 1312-EP2308865A1, 1312-EP2308882A1, 1312-EP2374784A1, 1312-EP2374785A1, 1313-EP2272537A2, 1313-EP2289894A2, 1313-EP2298743A1, 1313-EP2308833A2, 1313-EP2311840A1, 1313-EP2371811A2, 1313-EP2374787A1, 2186-EP2277879A1, 2186-EP2305636A1, 2186-EP2311821A1, 2186-EP2374787A1, 3854-EP2270113A1, 3854-EP2272849A1, 3854-EP2272935A1, 3854-EP2275414A1, 3854-EP2275418A1, 3854-EP2277565A2, 3854-EP2277566A2, 3854-EP2277567A1, 3854-EP2277568A2, 3854-EP2277569A2, 3854-EP2277570A2, 3854-EP2289879A1, 3854-EP2292280A1, 3854-EP2298753A1, 3854-EP2302003A1, 3854-EP2305219A1, 3854-EP2305683A1, 3854-EP2305684A1, 3854-EP2308857A1, 3854-EP2308858A1, 3854-EP2309584A1, 3854-EP2311816A1, 3854-EP2311817A1, 3854-EP2311831A1, 3854-EP2311839A1, 3854-EP2311840A1, 3854-EP2314589A1, 3854-EP2315303A1, 3854-EP2316837A1, 3854-EP2371803A1, 3854-EP2372017A1, 3854-EP2374538A1, 3854-EP2374786A1, 3854-EP2377842A1, 3854-EP2377843A1, 3854-EP2377847A1, A11196, C00511, C19501, D03392, D03393, D03394, D03395, D03396, D03397, 51366-35-9 (calcium[2:1] salt.dihydrate), Acrylic acid, inhibited [UN2218] [Corrosive], Acrylic acid, inhibited [UN2218] [Corrosive], 4-02-00-01455 (Beilstein Handbook Reference), A830860, 3B2-5253, 3B4-3208, I04-0428, I04-1350, I14-92633, InChI=1/C3H4O2/c1-2-3(4)5/h2H,1H2,(H,4,5, 2-Propenoic acid, block polymer with sulfonated ethenylbenzene, 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate vinyl acetate 2-ethylhexyl acrylate polymer, Block copolymer of sulfonated polystyrene and polyacrylic acid (MW 250,000), 104625-85-6, 104922-39-6, 105913-47-1, 11132-69-7, 125857-68-3, 125857-69-4, 1265528-53-7, 131094-47-8, 165724-08-3, 168564-56-5, 169799-28-4, 170473-89-9, 174594-09-3, 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, polymer with ethenyl acetate and 2-ethylhexyl 2-propenoate, 230287-43-1, 37241-23-9, 39341-22-5, 471251-42-0, 51142-25-7, 54578-44-8, 54990-82-8, 56747-65-0, 59233-19-1, 65742-16-7, 71767-27-6, 71767-28-7, 746620-96-2, 746620-98-4, 81031-52-9, 82446-45-5, 82446-46-6, 87913-02-8, 88650-89-9

Removed Synonyms

Hystoacril, Carpolene, Texcryl, Arolon, Racryl, Tecpol, Solidokoll N, ACRYLATE, Sokalan PAS, Carboxypolymethylene, G-Cure, Acrysol lmw-20X, Acrylic acid polymer, Antiprex 461, Carbomer 910, Carbomer 934, Carbomer 934P, Carbomer 941, Carbopol 941, Carbopol 961, Carbopol 980, Haloflex 202, Haloflex 208, Arasorb 750, Polytex 973, Good-rite K727, Acrylic polymer resins, Arasorb S 100F, Good-rite K-700, Polymer, carboxy vinyl, Neocryl A-1038, Colloids 119/50, Acrylic acid, zinc salt, acrylic acid, silver salt, Acrylic acid, sodium salt, Carbomer 910 (USAN), acrylic acid, aluminum salt, acrylic acid, ammonium salt, acrylic acid, magnesium salt, acrylic acid, potassium salt, Araldite GT 7004 acrylate, acrylic acid, Fe (3+) salt, CCRIS 3234, acrylic acid, Ca (2:1) salt, 2-Carboxyethyl acrylate oligomers, acrylic acid, cobalt (2+) salt, CID6581, NSC 106034, NSC 106035, NSC 106036, NSC 106037, NSC 112122, NSC 112123, NSC 114472, NSC 165257, TB 1131, acrylic acid, Ca (2:1) salt, dihydrate, 2-Phenyl-5-trifluoromethyl-2H-pyrazol-3-ol, 1-phenyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-5-ol, C036658, 90598-46-2, 96145-98-1, AKR, Polymer von linksdrehender acrylsaeure mit einem polyfunktionalen agens, Polymer of acrylic acid, cross-linked with allyl ethers of sucrose or pentaerythritol, 25302-81-2, 9007-20-9, 9062-04-8

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