Synthesis of tin(II) chloride (stannous chloride)

Preparation of tin(II) chloride

Tin(II) chloride is be prepared by the action of hydrochloric acid upon metallic tin. However, the reaction is exceedingly slow, and could be hastened by the addition of a very small quantity of nitric acid, which oxidizes the tin. Instead of using nitric acid to hasten the reaction a small foil of platinum could be added. In this case galvanic cell forms which speed up the reaction.

Preparation of tin(II) chloride (stannous chloride)

Preparation of tin(II) chloride (stannous chloride)

100 grams of tin in a reaction flask are covered with 175 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid. During a period of 10 minutes, 25 ml of 25% nitric acid is added dropwise.  The reaction solution is concentrated by boiling over a free flame, to a volume of 90-100 ml, at which point a crystal scum will form on blowing on the surface of the hot liquid. There should still be left a small amount of undissolved metal. If at any time during the evaporation all the tin becomes used up, the additional portion of metal should be added. The obtained mass is moistened with concentrated hydrochloric acid, filter the concentrated stannous chloride solution before it has cooled to below 60-70° C trough preheated Buchner filter. If during the filtration the liquid stops flowing, due to crystals separating in the filter, 5-10 ml of boiling water are added. Finally, the reaction flask is rinsed with 15 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid and filtered  through the filter. The obtained filtrate is transferred in crystallization dish and left to evaporate slowly at room temperature in a place exposed to the air but protected from dust. The solubility of stannous chloride decreases very rapidly with decreasing temperature. Hence, it is advantageous to carry out the crystallization in as cool a place as possible. When a considerable amount of tin(II) chloride crystals has formed, the salt is separated by filtration and dried, preferably, in a desiccator. In order to obtain additional amount of  tin(II) chloride from the filtrate, the solution is heated carefully just to the boiling temperature, but not allowing to boil more than a moment. In this way, sufficient amount of water and hydrochloric acid are expelled to allow another crop of tin(II) chloride crystals to form. If too much hydrochloric acid is expelled by the evaporation and an indistinctly crystalline precipitate of basic salt separates on cooling, a few drops of hydrochloric acid are added. The solution is cooled and evaporated, as described before, yielding another crop of crystals. By repeating this process once or twice more, almost the entire mother liquor should be used up and nearly the calculated yield of stannous chloride should be obtained. Tin(II) chloride obtained by described method contains two molecules of water – SnCl2 · 2H2O.

Synthetic inorganic chemistry, by A. A. Blanchard, 268-270, 1936

Preparation of anhydrous tin(II) chloride

Crystalline tin(II) chloride, SnCl2 • 2H2O, is heated for one hour in an oil bath at 195-200° C. The melt is cooled to room temperature and powdered. The obtained tin(II) chloride is  kept in a desiccator or in a tightly stoppered bottle. The tin(II) chloride, obtained by described method, although satisfactory in many instances, is not entirely anhydrous.

In order to obtain anhydrous tin(II) chloride in a 400 ml beaker 102 grams (or 89.5 ml) of freshly distilled acetic anhydride are placed, and 123 grams of pure tin(II) chloride dihydrate are added whilst the liquid is stirred. The dehydration is almost instantaneous. After about one hour, the anhydrous tin(II) chloride is filtered off, washed with two 30 ml portions of anhydrous ether in order to remove acetic acid, and dried overnight in a vacuum desiccator. Anhydrous tin(II) chloride may be kept for an indefinite period in a desiccator; it may also be stored in a tightly stoppered bottle.

The anhydrous tin(II) chloride is not appreciably hygroscopic, is readily soluble in acetone and amyl alcohol, and insoluble in benzene, toluene, xylene and chloroform; tin(II) chloride is also readily soluble in absolute methyl or ethyl alcohol, but a trace of water causes immediate hydrolysis with the formation of an opalescent precipitate.

A text book of practical organic chemistry, by A. I. Vogel, 198, 1974

IUPAC Name

dichlorotin;dihydrate

InChI

InChI=1S/2ClH.2H2O.Sn/h2*1H;2*1H2;/q;;;;+2/p-2

InChI Key

FWPIDFUJEMBDLS-UHFFFAOYSA-L

Canonical SMILES

O.O.Cl[Sn]Cl

MeSH Synonyms

SnCl(2), stannous chloride, stannous chloride anhydrous, stannous chloride dihydrate, stannous chloride, 113Sn-labeled, stannous chloride, 2H-labeled, stannous chloride, 35Cl-labeled, stannous chloride, dichlorostannate (-1), tin chloride

Depositor-Supplied Synonyms

STANNOUS CHLORIDE DIHYDRATE, Stannochlor, dichlorotin dihydrate, TIN Chloride, dihydrate, Dihydrated stannous chloride, Stannous chloride, dihydrate, Stannous dichloride dihydrate, CCRIS 3953, Tin chloride (SnCl2) dihydrate, Tin(II) chloride, dihydrate (1:2:2), Stannous chloride (USAN), Stannous chloride [USAN], tin dichloride dihydrate, tin(II)chloride dihydrate, tin(II)chloride d1Hydrate, tin (II)chloride dihydrate, Tin(II)-chloride dihydrate, tin(11) chloride dihydrate, tin(II)chloride bis-hydrate, tin (II) chloride dihydrate, tin-(II)-chloride dihydrate, Tin(II) dichloride dihydrate, tin (11) chloride dihydrate, tin(II) chloride bis-hydrate, Stannous chloride [USAN:NF], Tin (II) chloride di-hydrate, tin (II) dichloride dihydrate, tin (II) chloride bis hydrate, 31669_RIEDEL, 431508_ALDRICH, 474762_ALDRICH, AC1L1V86, 7772-99-8 (Parent), FWPIDFUJEMBDLS-UHFFFAOYSA-L, MolPort-035-395-392, Tin chloride (SnCl2), dihydrate, 31669_SIAL, 208035_SIAL, 243523_SIAL, BP-30099, LS-153845, D05918, AE>> NCIy paragraph signthornE(R) masculineIIi

Removed Synonyms

Stannous chloride, Tin dichloride, Tin Protochloride, Tin chloride, Tin (II) chloride, Tin(II) chloride dihydrate, Tin chloride (SnCl2), SnCl(2), SnCl2.2H2O, Stannous chloride anhydrous, stannous chloride, 2H-labeled, UNII-1BQV3749L5, stannous chloride, 35Cl-labeled, stannous chloride, 113Sn-labeled, CID61436, stannous chloride, dichlorostannate (-1), C023599, 10025-69-1, 7772-99-8

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