Synthesis of silicon dioxide (precipitated silica)

Preparation of silicon dioxide

The addition of an inorganic acid to a sodium silicate solution causes a separation of silicic acid which appears as a jelly-like substance. Orthosilicic acid has the composition H4SiO4, metasilicic acid, H2SiO3. Suspended in water these different silicic acids are more or less easily interchangeable one into another, but, if silicic acid is heated, it loses all its water and becomes the anhydride. The anhydride practically will not take on water again to form acids. The very finely divided anhydride prepared by precipitating and drying silicic acid is more reactive than the most finely powdered quartz, and could be used for many applications.

Preparation of silicon dioxide (precipitated silica)

Preparation of silicon dioxide (precipitated silica)

25 ml of water glass in a porcelain dish are diluted with 25 ml of water and slowly with stirring is treated  with concentrated hydrochloric acid until the acid is in excess. The liquid first coagulates to a jelly, then the jelly hardens and breaks up on stirring into seemingly dry lumps, and later after an excess of acid is added (about 30 ml in all) the mass grows partially fluid again. The obtained solution is evaporated to dryness. If a hot plate at 130° C is available the dish and contents should be baked for 1 hour at this temperature. Otherwise the dish is heated over a flame for 15 minutes, avoiding, if possible, letting any part of the contents get above 150° C as this would render traces of iron oxide very difficult to redissolve in acid. While the dish is still warm the contents are completely moistened with concentrated hydrochloric acid by letting it digest for 15 minutes. The obtained mass is washed into a 600 ml beaker and settled silica is decanted several times by treating with water, collected by filtration and washed well on the filter. Dried silica is stored in  a well-stoppered bottle.

Synthetic inorganic chemistry, by A. A. Blanchard, 267-268, 1936





InChI Key


Canonical SMILES


Depositor-Supplied Synonyms

Silica, Dioxosilane, Quartz, SILICON DIOXIDE, Cristobalite, Silicic anhydride, Diatomaceous earth, Diatomaceous silica, Silicon(IV) oxide, Aerosil, Diatomite, Tridymite, Glass, Sand, Silica gel, Infusorial earth, Silica, amorphous, Aerosil 380, Cristobalite (SiO2), Chalcedony, Christensenite, Crystoballite, Novaculite, Siliziumdioxid, Sillikolloid, Superfloss, Acticel, Amethyst, Aquafil, Carplex, Cataloid, Crysvarl, Dicalite, Extrusil, Flintshot, Nalcoag, Porasil, Santocel, Silikil, Silikill, Siloxid, Sipernat, Vulkasil, Wessalon, Cherts, Neosil, Neosyl, Nyacol, Snowit, Agate, Flint, Imsil, Ludox, Metacristobalite, Zipax, Aerosil-degussa, Onyx, Opal, Quartz silica, Silica slurry, Siliceous earth, Silicon oxide, Tridymite dust, alpha-Quartz, Fossil flour, Fused silica, Quartz dust, Rock crystal, Rose quartz, Silica dust, White carbon, Amorphous silica, Silica particles, Zorbax sil, Tiger-eye, Vulkasil S, Celite superfloss, Cristobalite dust, QUARTZ (SIO2), Snowtex O, Corasil II, Silver bond B, Cab-O-sperse, alpha-Cristobalite, alpha-Crystobalite, Calcined diatomite, Crystalline silica, Tokusil TPLM, Dri-Die, Gold bond R, 7631-86-9, Cabosil st-1, Manosil vn 3, Kieselsaeureanhydrid, Cab-O-sil, Sil-Co-Sil, Ultrasil VH 3, Ultrasil VN 3, Aerosil bs-50, Aerosil K 7, Cabosil N 5, Carplex 30, Carplex 80, Pigment White 27, Siderite (SiO2), Snowtex 30, Syton 2X, Tridymite 118, Zeofree 80, Cab-O-grip II, Min-U-Sil, Tridimite [French], Amorphous silica gel, Cristobalite asbestos, HI-Sil, Positive sol 232, Aerogel 200, Aerosil 300, KIESELGUHR, Ludox hs 40, Silanox 101, Silica (SiO2), Vitasil 220, Amorphous silica dust, Positive sol 130M, Aerosil A 300, Aerosil E 300, Aerosil M-300, Cab-o-sil M-5, Nyacol 830, CHEBI:30563, Quazo puro [Italian], Sibelite M 3000, Sibelite M 4000, Sibelite M 6000, SiO2, Silicon dioxide, fumed, Caswell No. 734A, Nalfloc N 1050, Quso 51, Sicron F 300, Sikron F 100, Nyacol 1430, Silica, amorphous fused, SILICA, VITREOUS, W 12 (Filler), (SiO2)n, Colloidal silicon dioxide, Dri-Die insecticide 67, MIN-U-sil alpha quartz, Nalco 1050, Quso G 30, Silica, amorphous, fumed, Siliceous earth, purified, Pyrogenic colloidal silica, Synthetic amorphous silica, Hydrophobic silica 2482, Silica, crystalline quartz, Calcined diatomaceous earth, Crystallized silicon dioxide, Silica 2482, hydrophobic, Diatomaceous earth, calcined, Silica, crystalline, quartz, Silica, crystalline: quartz, Silicon dioxide (amorphous), [SiO2], Silicon oxide, di- (sand), Silica, crystalline – fused, CAB-O-SIL N-70TS, Silica, crystalline tridymite, Silica, crystalline – quartz, Quartz [Silica, crystalline], Fumed silica, crystalline-free, Sg-67, Silica, crystalline: tridymite, Filter agent, CCRIS 2475, CCRIS 3699, DQ12, Dimethyl siloxanes and silicones, Fumed synthetic amorphous silica, Silica, crystalline – tridymite, Silica, fumed, Tridymite [Silica, crystalline], Silica gel Rubin, Silica gel orange, Silica preparation, Silica, crystalline: cristobalite, Synthetic amorphous silica, fumed, WGL 300, D & D, SF 35, Silica, crystalline – cristobalite, Cristobalite [Silica, crystalline], MP Silica DCC, Amorphous silica: Pyrogenic (fumed), EINECS 231-545-4, EINECS 238-455-4, EINECS 238-878-4, EINECS 239-487-1, Silicon dioxide, chemically prepared, HK 400, TGL 16319, ENT 25,550, EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 072605, CI 7811, Silica, amorphous, fumed, cryst.-free, Silica, mesostructured, Silicium dioxide beads, Chromosorb(R) W/AW, MP SILITECH, MP SILICA, MP SILICA, Active, MP SILICA SCC, W 12, MP SILICA F-TLC, MP SILICA G-TLC, Silica flour (powdered crystalline silica), AI3-25549, Silicon dioxide amorphous, MP SILICA GF-TLC, N1030, U 333, W 006, MP SILICA BioRP C8, 43-63C, Chromosorb(R) G/AW-DMCS, Chromosorb(R) W/AW-DMCS, MP SILICA BioRP C18, Celite(R) 545 AW coarse, 112945-52-5, 14464-46-1, 14808-60-7, 60676-86-0, 61790-53-2, Glass wool for laboratory use, Silicates (<1% crystalline silica):Graphite, natural, Drying agent free of metal salts, Drying pearls Orange (heavy metal free), Micro particles based on silicium dioxide, 105269-70-3, 87347-84-0, 98253-25-9, Beads based on silicium dioxide, microsize, Silica gel 60 ADAMANT(TM) on TLC plates, silanedione, Silicaglass, Silicondioxide, Spectrosil, Accusand, Coesite, Fuselex, Nalcast, Optocil, Quartzine, Quarzsand, Rancosil, Suprasil, Tridimite, Celite, Siltex, Silica vitreous, Vitreous quartz, Vitreous silica, Glass spheres, Silicic oxide, Fused quartz, Quartz glass, Quartz sand, Silica glass, Amorphous quartz, Quazo puro, Silicone dioxide, Vitrified silica, Suprasil W, Silica, fused, Vitreosil IR, Borsil P, Silane, dioxo-, Optocil (quartz), Celite Filter Cel, CP-SilicaPLOT, Chromosorb® P, 50926-93-7, Sand, white quartz, Cabosil M-5, Celite 500 fine, Celite 577 fine, Quarzsand [German], S-Col, Admafine SO 25H, Admafine SO 25R, Admafine SO 32H, Admafine SO-C 2, Admafine SO-C 3, Silica gel spherical, Tridymite (SiO2), Stishovite (SiO2), ED-C (silica), Fuselex ZA 30, Celite 512 medium, Celite 535 coarse, Celite 545 coarse, Celite 560 coarse, As 1 (silica), Agate (SiO2), Celite 501, Celite 503, FB 5 (silica), Fuselex RD 120, Microcrystalline quartz, Corning 7940, iNEO(1)eOaIA, Denka FB 30, Denka FB 44, Denka FB 74, Denka FS 30, Silicon dioxide (NF), Celite(R) Filter Aid, Celite(R) Filter Cel, Cryptocrystalline quartz, Denka F 90, Elsil 100, F 44 (filler), FB 20 (silica), Hyflo Super Cel medium, (1)eou, Celite(R) 501, Celite(R) 503, Elsil BF 100, (1)eOaIA, F 125 (silica), F 160 (silica), Celite 545 AW coarse, Celite(R) 500 fine, Celite(R) 577 fine, Celite(R), acid-washed, AC1L2NBM, Fuselex RD 40-60, Silica, amorphous, fused, Cab-O-sil(R) M-5, Celite(R) 512 medium, Celite(R) 535 coarse, Celite(R) 545 AW, Celite(R) 545 coarse, Celite(R) 560 coarse, DSSTox_CID_9677, Epitope ID:158537, Silicon dioxide (vitreous), degrees xE O centE degrees, Drying agent silica gel PS, Hyflo Super Cel(R) medium, Silica gel PS drying agent, .(1/2)E O cent, S5130_ALDRICH, DSSTox_RID_78805, GP 7I, DSSTox_GSID_29677, 20199U_SUPELCO, Diatomaceous earth non-washed, SYTON(R) HT-50, AF-SO 25R, (1)eE, 18514_SUPELCO, 18649_SUPELCO, 31623_SUPELCO, 31624_SUPELCO, 85356_ALDRICH, C0265_SIGMA, C6389_SIGMA, C6639_SIGMA, C8389_SIGMA, C8514_SIGMA, C8656_SIGMA, C9889_SIGMA, S5130_SIGMA, S5505_SIGMA, paragraph signthornNo>> (1)e, Silica, fused, respirable dust, 10087_RIEDEL, 13760_RIEDEL, 13767_RIEDEL, 18421_RIEDEL, 18422_RIEDEL, 18423_RIEDEL, 18514_RIEDEL, 18648_RIEDEL, 18649_RIEDEL, 204358_ALDRICH, 214434_ALDRICH, 243310_ALDRICH, 243345_ALDRICH, 31623_RIEDEL, 31624_RIEDEL, 342831_ALDRICH, 342858_ALDRICH, 342890_ALDRICH, 381276_ALDRICH, 420778_ALDRICH, 420786_ALDRICH, 420794_ALDRICH, 420808_ALDRICH, 420816_ALDRICH, 420824_ALDRICH, 420832_ALDRICH, 420840_ALDRICH, 420859_ALDRICH, 420875_ALDRICH, 420883_ALDRICH, 420891_ALDRICH, 421553_ALDRICH, 440345_ALDRICH, 541036_ALDRICH, 560979_ALDRICH, 634867_ALDRICH, 637238_ALDRICH, 637246_ALDRICH, 643637_ALDRICH, 643645_ALDRICH, 645524_ALDRICH, AC1Q5B87, AC1Q5B88, C8764_SIAL, D3877_SIAL, D5509_SIAL, GP 11I, LUDOX(R) CL colloidal silica, LUDOX(R) LS colloidal silica, RD 8, S4004_SIAL, S4133_SIAL, S5631_SIAL, S6503_SIAL, S6628_SIAL, S7500_SIAL, S7625_SIAL, S8394_SIAL, S9258_SIAL, No>> (1)e, CHEMBL3188292, LUDOX(R) TMA colloidal silica, Siliceous earth, purified (NF), 00223_FLUKA, 00653_FLUKA, 01870_FLUKA, 01977_FLUKA, 03561_FLUKA, 12479_FLUKA, 13760_FLUKA, 18819_FLUKA, 22138_FLUKA, 22139_FLUKA, 22140_FLUKA, 22141_FLUKA, 22142_FLUKA, 22145_FLUKA, 22147_FLUKA, 22151_FLUKA, 22152_FLUKA, 22153_FLUKA, 27121_FLUKA, 42275_FLUKA, 44054_FLUKA, 44054_SIGMA, 54375_FLUKA, 54375_SIGMA, 56678_FLUKA, 56796_FLUKA, 56796_SIGMA, 56798_FLUKA, 56798_SIGMA, 56799_FLUKA, 56799_SIGMA, 60734_FLUKA, 60735_FLUKA, 60736_FLUKA, 60737_FLUKA, 60738_FLUKA, 60740_FLUKA, 60741_FLUKA, 60742_FLUKA, 60743_FLUKA, 60744_FLUKA, 60745_FLUKA, 60746_FLUKA, 60750_FLUKA, 60751_FLUKA, 60752_FLUKA, 60753_FLUKA, 60760_FLUKA, 60765_FLUKA, 60770_FLUKA, 60775_FLUKA, 60779_FLUKA, 66373_FLUKA, 72917_FLUKA, 78307_FLUKA, 81108_FLUKA, 83340_FLUKA, 84878_FLUKA, 84880_FLUKA, 85330_FLUKA, 85332_FLUKA, 85356_FLUKA, 85815_FLUKA, 90997_FLUKA, 93875_FLUKA, CRS 1102RD8, CTK3I8134, Silicon dioxide, colloidal (NF), LUDOX(R) CL-X colloidal silica, MolPort-001-756-349, 10087_SIAL, 13767_SIAL, 18421_SIAL, 18422_SIAL, 18423_SIAL, 18648_SIAL, 22138_SIAL, 22139_SIAL, 22140_SIAL, 22141_SIAL, 22142_SIAL, 22145_SIAL, 22147_SIAL, 22151_SIAL, 22152_SIAL, 22153_SIAL, 56678_SIAL, 60779_SIAL, 83340_SIAL, 84878_SIAL, 84880_SIAL, EF 10, FS 74, MR 84, Silica, fused [Silica, amorphous], (3/4)-OuEUiNEOmicroA(1)eOaIA, 214396_SIAL, 214418_SIAL, 214426_SIAL, 214442_SIAL, 214450_SIAL, 214477_SIAL, 221791_SIAL, 227196_SIAL, 236756_SIAL, 236772_SIAL, 236780_SIAL, 236799_SIAL, 236802_SIAL, 236810_SIAL, 236829_SIAL, 236837_SIAL, 236845_SIAL, 242179_SIAL, 243310_SIAL, 243345_SIAL, 243981_SIAL, 249823_SIAL, 270172_SIAL, 274739_SIAL, 288500_SIAL, 288519_SIAL, 288527_SIAL, 288586_SIAL, 288594_SIAL, 288608_SIAL, 288624_SIAL, 336815_SIAL, 343323_SIAL, 346446_SIAL, 391484_SIAL, 392545_SIAL, 403563_SIAL, 403598_SIAL, 403601_SIAL, 403709_SIAL, 403717_SIAL, 419931_SIAL, 525227_SIAL, 525235_SIAL, 525243_SIAL, 526266_SIAL, LUDOX(R) AM-30 colloidal silica, LUDOX(R) AS-30 colloidal silica, LUDOX(R) AS-40 colloidal silica, LUDOX(R) HS-30 colloidal silica, LUDOX(R) HS-40 collodial silica, LUDOX(R) SM-30 colloidal silica, LUDOX(R) TM-40 colloidal silica, LUDOX(R) TM-50 colloidal silica, EINECS 262-373-8, Tox21_301288, BF 100, EQ 912, IN3199, LS-866, QG 100, RD 120, Light anhydrous silicic acid (JP16), AKOS009085429, ICN Silica 63-100, 100 A, ICN Silica 63-200, 100 A, LS-2422, RL04340, RP18256, MP Silica 100-200, active 60 A, Silica, amorphous, fumed, cryst. -free, NCGC00257531-01, AN-20376, AN-21798, AN-33411, AN-39178, AN-39447, F 44, SC-89620, Y 40, CAS-7631-86-9, AB1002546, LS-145280, LS-145284, LS-145287, FT-0624621, FT-0645127, FT-0689270, S0821, S0822, D05839, D06521, D06522, 3B4-1514, white carbon; Hydrated Silica; Silicondioxidehydrate, I14-19978, I14-38217, I14-41302, I14-42847, I14-43211, I14-52652, I14-91441, IThorn paragraph sign EthI paragraph signthornNo>> (1)e, Amorphous silica: Vitreous silica, quartz glass, fused silica, Silica gel 60, 230 – 400 mesh, for flash column chromatography, SILICON DIOXIDE, AMORPHOUS, OCTAMETHYLCYCLOTETRASILOXANE TREATED, (1)eOaIA pound notOuEUiNEO pound not paragraph signthorn(1/4)x>>uAE(1)eIe>>, 107497-59-6, 108727-71-5, 11139-72-3, 11139-73-4, 112926-00-8, 113384-41-1, 119573-97-6, 12125-13-2, 122304-48-7, 122304-49-8, 122985-48-2, 12414-70-9, 12425-26-2, 125623-17-8, 126879-14-9, 126879-30-9, 126879-49-0, 12737-36-9, 12753-63-8, 12765-74-1, 127689-16-1, 12774-28-6, 127831-27-0, 1317-48-2, 1317-79-9, 1317-94-8, 1340-09-6, 136303-13-4, 136881-80-6, 137263-03-7, 13778-37-5, 13778-38-6, 138860-82-9, 139074-73-0, 145537-54-8, 145686-91-5, 145808-77-1, 14639-89-5, 146585-72-0, 149779-02-2, 150633-20-8, 152206-35-4, 152787-33-2, 15468-32-3, 155552-25-3, 155575-05-6, 15723-40-7, 171264-18-9, 172306-09-1, 173299-41-7, 17679-64-0, 179046-03-8, 184654-53-3, 185461-90-9, 188357-77-9, 191289-29-9, 203526-86-7, 206770-31-2, 207868-97-1, 217643-58-8, 221007-06-3, 231629-15-5, 247900-77-2, 250579-70-5, 250579-78-3, 264907-28-0, 330152-64-2, 341028-71-5, 368432-40-0, 37220-24-9, 37224-34-3, 37224-35-4, 37241-25-1, 37334-65-9, 37340-45-7, 37380-93-1, 39336-66-8, 39372-58-2, 39409-25-1, 39443-40-8, 39456-81-0, 402735-49-3, 402828-37-9, 402828-39-1, 402828-40-4, 50813-13-3, 50935-83-6, 51542-57-5, 51542-58-6, 52350-43-3, 53468-64-7, 55126-05-1, 55599-33-2, 56645-27-3, 56731-06-7, 60572-11-4, 61673-46-9, 62655-73-6, 67167-16-2, 67256-35-3, 68611-44-9, 70536-23-1, 70536-61-7, 70563-35-8, 70594-95-5, 761458-29-1, 781662-69-9, 78207-17-7, 83589-56-4, 83652-92-0, 865611-44-5, 87501-59-5, 89493-21-0, 9049-77-8, 91053-39-3, 92283-58-4, 942129-91-1, 942229-17-6, 97343-62-9, 97709-14-3, 98226-40-5, 99439-28-8

Removed Synonyms

Micro-cel, Silica, colloidal, Dioxide, Silicon, 380, Aerosil, Quso G32, MP SILICA TLC, G32, Quso, Quso G 32, Quso G-32, UNII-ETJ7Z6XBU4, CID24261, F 125, D012822, 10279-57-9, 68855-54-9, 68909-20-6, SGA

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