Synthesis of manganese

Preparation of elemental manganese

Preparation of elemental manganese from manganese oxide and aluminium

Manganese is prepared by reduction of manganese (II,III) oxide (Mn3O4) with aluminium. The pyrolusite is first ignited to the oxide of lower valence because the latter reacts much less violently in the process.

Preparation of manganese

Preparation of manganese

Eighty grams of manganese dioxide are ignited for one hour at 800°-900°C to convert the ore to manganese (II,III) oxide. This oxide, weighing about 66 g is mixed with 22 g of granulated aluminum and tamped into a crucible, leaving a hollow depression on the surface of the mixture into which 2 g of magnesium is packed. A fuse of magnesium ribbon is inserted and the charge set off in a sand-filled pail, preferably outdoors. The regulus of manganese weighs about 20 g.

Inorganic laboratory preparations, by G. G. Schlessinger, 2, 1962

Preparation of elemental manganese from manganese(II) chloride and magnesium

Preparation of elemental manganese from manganese(II) chloride and magnesium

Preparation of elemental manganese from manganese(II) chloride and magnesium

300 g crystallized manganese(II) chloride are gradually dried in a porcelain dish on the gas stove, and the pieces which have formed, powdered in a hot mortar and dried until the pale pink-colored powder fails to clot and a sample heated in a test-tube shows no moisture. 75 g of the anhydrous manganese(II) chloride are thoroughly mixed in a warm condition with 150 g dry potassium chloride (the latter must first be heated in a nickel or iron dish until it no longer decrepitates), and the mixture packed tight in a clay crucible, 12 cm high and 7 cm wide. The crucible is covered and heated in the furnace. When the crucible has become red-hot and the contents are soft, 18 g magnesium in sticks are thrown in, in pieces of from 3 to 4 g each, closing the crucible immediately after adding each piece and waiting for the faint reaction. Upon cooling, if the operation has proved successful, the manganese will be found as a regulus. If, in place of this, only a fine black metallic powder be found which, on exposure to air, changes very readily into manganese dioxide, then the heat was too low. If, on the other hand, the metal has solidified in crusts and granules, which have not combined to a regulus, then the crucible contents are ground, the light particles quickly elutriated with a large quantity of water, then filtered, quickly washed with alcohol and ether, dried between filtered paper, and the metallic powder so obtained is preserved in well-closed bottles. The magnesium chloride volatilizes and reacts with the water-vapor of the gases of combustion to form hydrogen chloride and magnesium oxide. During the operation there is a considerable evolution of hydrochloric acid gas. Manganese is a brittle, glossy metal, when exposed to the air, especially in a finely divided and moist condition, is very easily oxidizable in air and when excess of diluted hydrochloric acid is poured over a sample, the metal dissolves clearly with a vigorous evolution of hydrogen.

Laboratory manual of inorganic preparations, by H. T. Vulte, 157-159, 1895





InChI Key


Canonical SMILES


MeSH Synonyms


Depositor-Supplied Synonyms

MANGANESE, Colloidal manganese, MANGANESE COMPOUNDS, 7439-96-5, Cutaval, Magnacat, Tronamang, Mangan, Manganese fume, Mangan [Polish], (52mn)manganese, (53mn)manganese, (54mn)manganese, (56mn)manganese, Manganese(1-), Manganese, elemental, Manganese metal alloy, Manganese, ion (Mn1-), Mangan nitridovany [Czech], UNII-42Z2K6ZL8P, CCRIS 1579, HSDB 550, Manganese and inorganic compounds, EINECS 231-105-1, Manganese compounds and fumes (as Mn), 19768-33-3, Manganese atomic absorption standard solution, manganeso, manganum, Mangan nitridovany, manganese(0), manganide(-I), manganese(4+), manganide(1-), Manganese(7+), manganese(4+) ion, ACMC-20akkw, manganese(IV) cation, 13966-31-9, Mn(IV), Manganese standard for IC, 25Mn, Manganese standard for AAS, AC1L2N3C, Manganese compounds, n.o.s., Manganese, ion (Mn(7+)), M1787_SIGMA, Mn(-), Mn(0), MANGANESE, 99.5%, 207284_ALDRICH, 266132_ALDRICH, 266167_ALDRICH, 42Z2K6ZL8P, 463728_ALDRICH, 02654_FLUKA, 03357_FLUKA, 48795_FLUKA, 48795_SIGMA, 63533_FLUKA, 63534_FLUKA, CHEBI:18291, CHEBI:25158, CHEBI:33011, CHEBI:35154, CTK0I1048, HSDB 6945, Mn(4+), 207284_FLUKA, MolPort-003-925-243, PWHULOQIROXLJO-UHFFFAOYSA-N, KST-1A1324, KST-1A1383, KST-1A1540, KST-1A2132, AR-1A0195, AR-1A6214, AR-1A6215, AR-1A6218, AKOS015833390, LS-89192, S618, Manganese standard concentrate 10.00 g Mn, RT-000100, FT-0689227, C00034, 3B4-2122, I14-19604, M008000000, 17375-02-9, 195161-78-5, 23317-90-0, 39303-06-5, 8031-40-1, 8075-39-6, MN2

Removed Synonyms

Unknown Ligand, Compounds, Manganese, MANGANESE (II) ION, MANGANESE (III) ION, Manganese(II) nitrate solution, Manganese, isotope of mass 54, Manganese(II) chloride solution, CID23930, EPA-E650010, Manganese(II) chloride 0.1 M solution, N450, D008345, D017895, Additive Screening Solution 26/Fluka kit no 78374, Manganese atomic spectroscopy standard concentrate 1.00 g Mn, MN, 14090-87-0, 14258-40-3, 14918-69-5, 178980-35-3, 22325-60-6, MN3, MNN, UNL

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