Synthesis of hydrogen

Preparation of hydrogen

Preparation of hydrogen

Preparation of hydrogen

Hydrogen gas is best prepared from granulated zinc and dilute sulfuric acid (1:5) in Kipp’s apparatus or any other glass apparatus for gas generation.

A glass apparatus (Kipp’s apparatus) for the preparation of hydrogen

A glass apparatus (Kipp’s apparatus) for the preparation of hydrogen

The zinc should not be too pure or the supply of gas will be slow and feeble. To avoid this a small amount of copper sulfate solution, just sufficient to produce a thin coat of copper on the zinc may be added. Hydrogen gas prepared by the action of zinc and sulfuric or hydrochloric acid is never pure, and may contain hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, etc. The very small amount of arsenic generally present, as arsine (AsH3), may be neglected. The other impurities are removed by first passing the hydrogen gas through a solution of potassium permanganate in order to oxidize hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, etc., then through the potassium hydroxide to absorb carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, etc., and finally through concentrated sulfuric acid and calcium chloride to remove water. Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas, is highly combustible, burning with a very hot but slightly luminous flame, and when mixed with air or free oxygen, explodes with violence.

Laboratory manual of inorganic preparations, by H. T. Vulte, 9-10, 1895

Preparation of hydrogen is presented in the following video by Doug’s Lab.

Preparation of hydrogen by reduction of water vapor by iron

Preparation of hydrogen by reduction of water vapor by iron

Preparation of hydrogen by reduction of water vapor by iron

Iron acts upon water at the ordinary temperatures very slowly. If, however, a current of steam is conducted over red-hot metallic iron, the reduction is very rapid, hydrogen being liberated. A 60 cm. length of iron gas pipe is filled with nails and heated to redness over a four-tube burner.

A glass apparatus for the preparation of hydrogen by reduction of water vapor by iron

A glass apparatus for the preparation of hydrogen by reduction of water vapor by iron

One end of the iron tube is connected with a steam generator and the other end fitted with a cork and a delivery-tube leading to the pneumatic trough. The steam generator consists of a 300 ml Erlenmeyer flask fitted with a two-holed rubber stopper, carrying a long thistle-tube and a glass elbow extending to the combustion-tube. The thistle tube must extend to the bottom of the flask in which 100 ml of water are brought to a boil. On passing a current of steam through the hot tube, a regular flow of hydrogen may be obtained at the pneumatic trough.

Chemical lecture experiments, by F. G. Benedict, 41-42, 1916.

Preparation of hydrogen by reduction of water vapor by zinc

Preparation of hydrogen by reduction of water vapor by zinc

Preparation of hydrogen by reduction of water vapor by zinc

Finely divided zinc reduces water vapor, forming zinc oxide and liberating hydrogen. The temperature at which the reduction is effected by means of zinc is, however, very much lower than that required when using iron, and it is only necessary to heat the tube, which is of glass rather than of iron, a little above the boiling point of water. The apparatus is similar to that used in the preceding experiment. The combustion-tube is filled with zinc dust and gently heated with a four-tube burner. As the zinc becomes converted to zinc oxide, a marked color-change in the contents of the tube is noticed, and at times the rapidity of the reduction is such as to cause the zinc to glow.

Chemical lecture experiments, by F. G. Benedict, 42, 1916.

Preparation of hydrogen from aluminum and sodium hydroxide solution

Preparation of hydrogen from aluminum and sodium hydroxide solution

Preparation of hydrogen from aluminum and sodium hydroxide solution

Fifty cubic centimeters of dilute sodium hydroxide solution and a few grams of scrap aluminium are placed in a ml Erlenmeyer flask fitted with a thistle-tube and a delivery tube. In the cold the action is at first very slow, soon warming up of itself and becoming very vigorous. As some time is required for the reaction to take place in the cold, it can be hastened by warming slightly. When once started the flame must be extinguished. A large quantity of pure hydrogen may be obtained in this manner from a very small weight of the metal.

Chemical lecture experiments, by F. G. Benedict, 43, 1916.

Preparation of hydrogen by heating calcium hydroxide and zinc dust or iron powder

Preparation of hydrogen by heating calcium hydroxide and zinc dust or iron powder

Preparation of hydrogen by heating calcium hydroxide and zinc dust or iron powder

A mixture of equal parts by volume of zinc dust and dry calcium hydroxide is heated in a hardglass test-tube, provided with a cork and a delivery-tube, the end of which dips into a pneumatic trough. On applying heat, the liberation of hydrogen is very regular, and the gas may be collected in bottles for testing. It is important that the calcium hydroxide be dry, as otherwise an excess of moisture is likely to collect on the tube and run back, causing it to break. Iron powder may be substituted for the zinc dust in the above experiment with equally satisfactory results.

Chemical lecture experiments, by F. G. Benedict, 43, 1916.

IUPAC Name

molecular hydrogen

InChI

InChI=1S/H2/h1H

InChI Key

UFHFLCQGNIYNRP-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Canonical SMILES

[HH]

MeSH Synonyms

Hydrogen

Depositor-Supplied Synonyms

Hydrogen, Dihydrogen, Molecular hydrogen, Atomic hydrogen, 1333-74-0, UFHFLCQGNIYNRP-UHFFFAOYSA-N, H2, Hydronium, Hydrogen gas, o-Hydrogen, p-Hydrogen, hydrogen molecule, Hydrogen, atomic, T101 Monoclonal Antibody, AC1L1A0K, ETNAM H HYDROGEN ATOM, 295396_ALDRICH, 00473_FLUKA, CHEBI:18276, CHEBI:33251, CHEBI:49637, HMDB01362, AR-1J2061, BI3852, NSC356464, AKOS016038407, MCULE-3166658688, NSC-356464, UN 1049, UN 1966, AN-49107, E949, E 949, E-949, C00282, 3B4-2182, 3B1-001908, 12385-13-6

Removed Synonyms

proton, tritio, hydrogen ion, Hydrogen cation, Hydrogen atom, LOSARTAN POTASSIUM, CID783, CL0041, D006859, (2R,3S)-(-)-2,3-Diphenyl-6-oxomorpholine, N-BOC protected, 10030-80-5, 124750-99-8, 957-52-8

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