Synthesis of hydrogen cyanide

Preparation of hydrogen cyanide

Preparation of hydrogen cyanide from potassium cynanide and sulfuric acid

Preparation of hydrogen cyanide

Preparation of hydrogen cyanide

All work MUST be done in a ventilated hood! To the round bottom, flask fitted with dropping funnel and gas outlet tube 100 g carbonate-free potassium cyanide are placed. The gas outlet tube leads to two U tubes in series which are filled with a mixture of fused and granular calcium chloride, and immersed in a water-bath at 35° C. The second of these U tubes may be connected to two more U tubes, the first of which is maintained at about — 10° C in a freezing mixture and the second at + 20° C. Each of these tubes, which are designed to receive the condensate of hydrogen cyanide formed in the reaction, is fitted at the bottom with a glass lead-off tube. This is connected through a glass cock to a cooled flask in which the liquid hydrogen cyanide collects. Before the synthesis a current of dry air is passed through the whole of the apparatus. Cooled aqueous sulfuric acid (1 : 1) is allowed to drop slowly through the dropping-funnel on to the potassium cyanide, regulating the rate of addition so that 1 drop of hydrogen cyanide condenses in the first receiver every second minute. Towards the end of the reaction it may be necessary to gently heat the contents of the flask. The greater part of the hydrogen cyanide produced in the reaction condenses in the first U tube and is collected in the corresponding flask. Pure anhydrous hydrogen cyanide is a clear colorless liquid with a peculiar odor of bitter almonds. It boils at 26.5° C, and solidifies on cooling at — 13.4° C, forming a crystalline mass which melts at — 15° C.

The war gases chemistry and analysis, by M. Sartory, 182-183, 1939.

Preparation of hydrogen cyanide from potassium ferrocyanide and sulfuric acid

Preparation of hydrogen cyanide from potassium ferrocyanide and sulfuric acid

Preparation of hydrogen cyanide from potassium ferrocyanide and sulfuric acid

Hydrogen cyanide also is prepared by distilling 500 g coarsely powdered potassium ferrocyanide with a mixture of 350 g concentrated sulfuric acid diluted with 700 ml water. The diluted sulfuric acid is slowly added from a dropping funnel to the distillation flask containing potassium ferrocyanide. The distillation flask is connected with the two bottles or U-shaped glass flask (condensers) which are immersed in ice. The vapors of hydrogen cyanide escaping from the last bottle are led into cold water. If absolutely anhydrous hydrogen cyanide is required, the first condenser flask before distillation is filled with anhydrous calcium chloride, and set it in warm water, in order to distill its contents into the second bottle. The hydrogen cyanide should not be preserved in an anhydrous form, but rather in a diluted solution, or better neutralized with strong alkali.

Laboratory manual of inorganic preparations, by H. T. Vulte, 124-125, 1895

IUPAC Name

formonitrile

InChI

InChI=1S/CHN/c1-2/h1H

InChI Key

LELOWRISYMNNSU-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Canonical SMILES

C#N

MeSH Synonyms

Acid, Hydrocyanic, Cyanide, Hydrogen, Hydrocyanic Acid, Hydrogen Cyanide, Zyklon B

Depositor-Supplied Synonyms

hydrogen cyanide, hydrocyanic acid, Formonitrile, Prussic acid, Formic anammonide, Zyklon B, Cyanwasserstoff, Zaclondiscoids, Blausaeure, Evercyn, Cyclon, Cyclone B, Aero Liquid HCN, Agent AC, Cyaanwaterstof, Cyjanowodor, Blauwzuur, 74-90-8, Acido cianidrico, Acide cyanhydrique, RCRA waste number P063, Blauwzuur [Dutch], Carbon hydride nitride (CHN), Blausaeure [German], Cyjanowodor [Polish], Caswell No. 483, Cyaanwaterstof [Dutch], Cyanwasserstoff [German], Hydrogen cyanide [ISO], RCRA waste no. P063, Acido cianidrico [Italian], Acide cyanhydrique [French], UN 1051, UNII-2WTB3V159F, CHEMBL183419, HSDB 165, Acide cyanhydrique [ISO-French], CHEBI:18407, LELOWRISYMNNSU-UHFFFAOYSA-N, Prussic acid, anhydrous, stabilized, EINECS 200-821-6, Blausaeure (German), NA1613, UN1051, UN1613, UN1614, UN3294, EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 045801, HCN, Hydrocyanic acid, anhydrous, stabilized, Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, AI3-31100-X, BRN 1718793, Hydrocyanic acid (prussic), unstabilized [Forbidden], Hydrocyanic acid aqueous solutions, with not >20% hydrocyanic acid, Hydrocyanic acid, anhydrous, stabilized, absorbed in a porous inert material, Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, absorbed in a porous inert material, Prussic acid, anhydrous, stabilized, absorbed in a porous inert material, 191234-22-7, methanenitrile, Hydrocyanicacid, a nitrile, Zootic acid, Nitrilomethane #, hydridonitridocarbon, AC [Cyanide], Carbon hydride nitride, CYANIDE GROUP, hydrogen(nitridocarbonate), Prussic acid, unstabilized, AC1L19ZE, [CHN], UN 1613 (Salt/Mix), UN 1614 (Salt/Mix), 2WTB3V159F, AC1Q287H, CHEBI:18379, CTK2H7235, AR-1L2506, NA 1051, Hydrocyanic acid (prussic), unstabilized, LS-77243, FT-0083154, FT-0651299, Hydrogen cyanide, stabilized with <3% water, C01326, I14-59505, Hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solutions <5% hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogen cyanide, stabilized with <3% water [UN1051] [Poison], Hydrogen cyanide, stabilized with <3% water [UN1051] [Poison], Hydrogen cyanide, solution in alcohol with not >45% hydrogen cyanide, Hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solutions <5% hydrogen cyanide [NA1613] [Poison], Hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solutions <5% hydrogen cyanide [NA1613] [Poison], Hydrogen cyanide, solution in alcohol with not >45% hydrogen cyanide [UN3294] [Poison], Hydrogen cyanide, solution in alcohol with not >45% hydrogen cyanide [UN3294] [Poison], Hydrogen cyanide, stabilized, with <3% water and absorbed in a porous inert material, 341972-31-4, Hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solutions or Hydrogen cyanide, aqueous solutions with not > 20% hydrogen cyanide, Hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solutions or Hydrogen cyanide, aqueous solutions with not > 20% hydrogen cyanide [UN1613] [Poison], Hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solutions or Hydrogen cyanide, aqueous solutions with not > 20% hydrogen cyanide [UN1613] [Poison], Hydrogen cyanide, stabilized, with <3% water and absorbed in a porous inert material [UN1614] [Poison], Hydrogen cyanide, stabilized, with <3% water and absorbed in a porous inert material [UN1614] [Poison]

Removed Synonyms

cyanide, Nitrile, Acid, Hydrocyanic, Cyanide, Hydrogen, CYANIDE ION, CID768, 4-02-00-00050 (Beilstein Handbook Reference), D006856, AC, 2074-87-5, 57-12-5, 78590-17-7, CN, CYN

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