Synthesis of hydrogen chloride

Preparation of hydrogen chloride

Larger quantities of gaseous hydrogen chloride could be prepared with the procedure provided by,1868.msg9551.html#msg9551

Preparation of hydrogen chloride from chlorosulfonic acid

Preparation of hydrogen chloride from chlorosulfonic acid

Laboratory reactor is fitted with an airtight stirrer, dropping funnel and gas outlet tube. 1106 g of 32% hydrochloric acid is cooled to 0° C and then slowly dropwise added to 582 g of chlorosulfonic acid. Hydrogen chloride gas evolution begins immediately, however, some gas may dissolve in the hydrochloric acid. During the reaction, the temperature slowly rises and reaches 20° C. A continuous stream of hydrogen chloride forms which could be regulating the addition rate of hydrochloric acid. The obtained gaseous hydrogen chloride is dried by passing over concentrated sulfuric acid. The residue can be used for further batches until there is no further evolution of hydrogen chloride gas.,1868.msg9551.html#msg9551

Larger quantities of gaseous hydrogen chloride are prepared also by the following procedure. A charge of concentrated sulfuric acid is run into the large separatory funnel and the concentrated hydrochloric acid is placed in the dropping funnel and run in when required through the long stem.

A glass apparatus for the preparation of hydrogen chloride

A glass apparatus for the preparation of hydrogen chloride

Entering in this way at the bottom of the layer of heavier liquid, the hydrochloric acid becomes thoroughly mixed with it. The capillary construction permits the stem to remain filled with liquid so that the flow is continuous. The connection between the gas exit and the top of the dropping funnel serves to equalize the pressure in the system, allowing the hydrochloric acid to flow in under gravitational pressure. The sulfuric acid wash bottle is provided with a safety tube to prevent a suck-back. The empty bottle next in line is a trap to catch any liquid which may suck back from the absorbing flask, and it will return such liquid to the flask when the flow of hydrogen chloride is resumed. The spent acid liquor can be run out and the separatory funnel recharged without dissembling the apparatus. If the rubber stopper at the top of the separatory funnel is coated heavily with varnish after it has been put in place it will remain gastight for many months; after the surface of a stopper has been corroded by hydrogen chloride the rubber becomes impervious to further attack.

Experiments in Organic Chemistry, L. F. Fieser, 393-395, 1941

Small amounts of gaseous hydrogen chloride are most conveniently prepared in a Kipp’s apparatus, also called Kipp generator, containing large pieces of ammonium chloride upon which concentrated sulfuric acid is allowed to act.

Preparation of gaseous HCl

Preparation of gaseous HCl

The apparatus set up is shown below:

Preparation of hydrogen chloride

Preparation of hydrogen chloride

Generated hydrogen chloride is passed through wash bottles containing sulfuric acid. This method does not work well for preparing large quantities of the hydrogen chloride, because of the foaming.

Larger amounts of hydrohen chloride may be prepared by treating 200 g  sodium chloride with a cooled mixture placed in dropping funnel of 320 g sulfuric acid and 80 g water in a round-bottomed flask.

Preparation of gaseous HCl

Preparation of gaseous HCl

The rate of hydrogen chloride may be regulated with heating intensity. On cooling, the flow of the gas slackens, but it can be started again by renewed heating.

The fact that hydrogen chloride is but slightly soluble in concentrated sulfuric acid, is also applied for the preparation of  hydrogen chloride. By allowing concentrated sulfuric acid to drop from a dropping funnel into a large suction flask containing concentrated hydrochloric acid, to which a handful of sodium chloride.  The rate of flow of gas from the flask is governed by the stopcock which regulates the dropping of the sulfuric acid.

Laboratory methods of inorganic chemistry by H. Biltz, 77c-77d, 1928





InChI Key


Canonical SMILES


MeSH Synonyms

Acid, Hydrochloric, Acid, Muriatic, Chloride, Hydrogen, Hydrochloric Acid, Hydrogen Chloride, Muriatic Acid

Depositor-Supplied Synonyms

hydrochloric acid, hydrogen chloride, Muriatic acid, Chlorohydric acid, 7647-01-0, Acide chlorhydrique, chlorane, Chlorwasserstoff, Spirits of salt, Hydrogen chloride (HCl), Anhydrous hydrochloric acid, Hydrochloric acid gas, Chloorwaterstof, Chlorowodor, hydrochloricacid, Aqueous hydrogen chloride, Marine acid, (36cl)hydrogen chloride, Acido cloridrico, Bowl Cleaner, Spirit of salt, chlorure d’hydrogene, 4-D Bowl Sanitizer, Chlorowodor [Polish], Emulsion Bowl Cleaner, Caswell No. 486, (3h)hydrogen chloride, Chloorwaterstof [Dutch], (39cl)hydrogen chloride, Hydrochloric acid [JAN], Hydrogen chloride (acid), [HCl], Chlorwasserstoff [German], NSC 77365, UN 1789 (solution), UN 1050 (anhydrous), Acido cloridrico [Italian], Acido clorhidrico [Spanish], Varley Poly-Pak Bowl Creme, White Emulsion Bowl Cleaner, UNII-QTT17582CB, Acide chlorhydrique [French], Hydrogen chloride (gas only), Chlorure d’hydrogene [French], HSDB 545, HCl, Chloruro de hidrogeno [Spanish], Hygeia Creme Magic Bowl Cleaner, CHEBI:17883, Percleen Bowl and Urinal Cleaner, VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-N, EINECS 231-595-7, UN1050, UN1789, UN2186, Chlorure d’hydrogene anhydre [French], Wuest Bowl Cleaner Super Concentrated, EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 045901, Cloruro de hidrogeno anhidro [Spanish], UN 2186 (refrigerated liquefied gas), Hydrochloric acid solution, Hydrogen chloride solution, Hydrochloric acid 36% by weight or more HCl, Varley’s Ocean Blue Scented Toilet Bowl Cleaner, Hydrochloric acid in 2-Propanol, Hydrogen chloride dioxan solution, Hydrochloric acid standard solution, Hydrochloric acid in dioxan solution, Hydrogen Chloride – Methanol Reagent, Now South Safti-Sol Brand Concentrated Bowl Cleanse with Magic Actio, Hydrogen chloride – 2-propanol solution, Hydrochloric acid (acid aerosols including mists, vapors, gas, fog, and other airborne forms of any particle size), 7698-05-7, chlorum, Hydrogenchlorid, Salzsaeure, Leftose, Acdeam, chloridohydrogen, hydro chloride, hydro-chloride, hydrogenchloride, Neuzym, Hydrochloride_, Soldering acid, hyrochloric acid, hyrogen chloride, hvdrochloric acid, hvdrogen chloride, hydrochloric-acid, hydrogen-chloride, Acido clorhidrico, Hydrochloric ccid, Lysozyme HCl, Spirits of salts, Wasserstoffchlorid, mono hydrochloride, hydrogen ch1oride, hydro chloric acid, hydro-chloric acid, hydrochloric ac id, hydrochloric acid-, cloruro de hidrogeno, hydro- chloric acid, 4N HCl in dioxane, Chloruro de hidrogeno, Lysozyme hydrochloride, mono hydrogen chloride, CHLORO GROUP, Lysozyme, hydrochloride, Muramidase hydrochloride, HCL], AE>> Ca EUO masculine, Hydrogen chloric anhydrous, hydrochloricacidfortechnical, Anhydrous hydrogen chloride, 17Cl, 5-6N HCl in Isopropanol, Hydrochloric acid, solution, AC1L18YM, AC1Q38HZ, Chlorure d’hydrogene anhydre, Cloruro de hidrogeno anhidro, Hydrochloric acid in ethanol, Hydrochloric acid, anhydrous, Hydrogen chloride, anhydrous, Hydrogen-chloride-anhydrous-, UNII-4YRW73H69V, DEUTERIUM CHLORIDE- D, Hydrochloric acid in methanol, 40233_ALDRICH, 40253_ALDRICH, 40304_ALDRICH, 40332_ALDRICH, H1758_SIGMA, H9892_SIGMA, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, ACS, 1.25 M HCl in Isopropanol, 07102_RIEDEL, 07104_RIEDEL, 295426_ALDRICH, 30719_RIEDEL, 30720_RIEDEL, 30721_RIEDEL, 30723_RIEDEL, 318949_ALDRICH, 318957_ALDRICH, 318965_ALDRICH, 343102_ALDRICH, 35009_RIEDEL, 35277_RIEDEL, 35320_RIEDEL, 35327_RIEDEL, 35328_RIEDEL, 35329_RIEDEL, 35330_RIEDEL, 35334_RIEDEL, 35335_RIEDEL, 38272_RIEDEL, 38280_RIEDEL, 38281_RIEDEL, 38282_RIEDEL, 38283_RIEDEL, 38285_RIEDEL, 38287_RIEDEL, 40233_RIEDEL, 40253_RIEDEL, 40304_RIEDEL, 40332_RIEDEL, 653799_ALDRICH, H0636_SIAL, Hydrochloric acid (JP15/NF), Hydrochloric acid (JP16/NF), QTT17582CB, DEUTERO HYDROCHLORIC ACID, CHEMBL1231821, 03378_FLUKA, 08256_FLUKA, 17077_FLUKA, 17933_FLUKA, 17934_FLUKA, 17935_FLUKA, 30719_FLUKA, 35009_FLUKA, 35277_FLUKA, 35320_FLUKA, 35327_FLUKA, 35328_FLUKA, 35329_FLUKA, 35334_FLUKA, 35335_FLUKA, 38272_FLUKA, 38280_FLUKA, 38281_FLUKA, 38282_FLUKA, 38283_FLUKA, 38285_FLUKA, 38287_FLUKA, 84411_FLUKA, 84411_SIGMA, 84415_FLUKA, 84418_FLUKA, 84419_FLUKA, 84420_FLUKA, 84428_FLUKA, 84429_FLUKA, 84429_SIGMA, 84431_FLUKA, 84431_SIGMA, 84434_FLUKA, 84434_SIGMA, 84435_FLUKA, 87472_FLUKA, 96208_FLUKA, CHEBI:23116, CTK2H7250, HMDB02306, 318949_FLUKA, 318957_FLUKA, 318965_FLUKA, 343102_FLUKA, 653799_FLUKA, MolPort-001-783-702, ZAMOUSCENKQFHK-UHFFFAOYSA-N, 07102_SIAL, 07104_SIAL, 17077_SIAL, 30720_SIAL, 30721_SIAL, 30723_SIAL, 84418_SIAL, 84419_SIAL, KST-1A0315, KST-1A1342, KST-1A2386, 258148_SIAL, 320331_SIAL, 339253_SIAL, 380113_SIAL, 435570_SIAL, Flask adapter out of Tefzel(R)/PP, LLZ16406, NSC77365, EINECS 232-954-0, Hydrogen Chloride – Butanol Reagent, Hydrogen chloride – ethanol solution, AR-1A0194, AR-1A3893, AR-1A4201, DNC000881, IN1994, NSC-77365, STL282413, Hydrogen chloride – methanol solution, Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid, AKOS015843726, Hydrochloric acid ACS grade 36-38%, CCG-221928, Hydrogen chloride – 1-Butanol solution, LS-7438, MCULE-7728164114, NA 1789, RL04912, RTC-066695, UN 1050, UN 1789, UN 2186, E507, SC-74300, Chloride standard concentrate 10.00 g Cl-, DB-060954, LS-192652, TC-066695, FT-0627123, Hydrogen chloride, 1M soln. in ethyl acetate, C01327, D02057, Hydrogen chloride solution 1.0 M in diethyl ether, Hydrochloric acid, solution [UN1789] [Corrosive], Hydrochloric acid, solution [UN1789] [Corrosive], Hydrogen chloride anhydrous [UN1050] [Poison gas], Hydrogen chloride, anhydrous [UN1050] [Poison gas], Hydrogen chloride, anhydrous [UN1050] [Poison gas], I04-12061, 3B3-051220, Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid [UN2186] [Poison gas], Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid [UN2186] [Poison gas], Hydrogen chloride solution 3M in cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME), 113962-65-5, 218625-68-4, 2647-01-0, 51005-19-7, 52219-07-5, 61674-62-2, 9066-59-5

Removed Synonyms

hydrochloride, Chlore, Chlor, Cloro, Lysozyme chloride, Acid, Muriatic, CHLORINE, Acid, Hydrochloric, Chloride, Hydrogen, Lysozyme chloride [JAN], BOC-GLU(OTBU)-ONP, CID313, A4358, A7763, H1060, H1061, H1062, H1202, H1203, H1277, U-104, X0038, X0039, X0041, D006851, 10026-54-7, 14117-96-5, 19210-06-1, 102395-53-9, 1170568-70-3, 178606-66-1, 69876-58-0, CL, ClO

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