Preparation of elemental bromine
To the round-bottomed distillation flask 10 parts by weight of potassium bromide, 80 g by weight of concentrated sulfuric acid and 40 g by weight manganese dioxide (MnO2) (or any other oxidizing agent such as potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, etc.) is placed. The reaction flask is gently heated and bromine vapor condenses in the condenser. Additionally, bromine is cooled in the receiving flask. Proper cooling should be applied as bromine is very volatile (boiling point 59 °C). As all bromine is distilled the following step of purification could be applied. Bromine could be purified by washing with water, then dissolving it in a concentrated solution of calcium bromide and re-precipitating it from this solution with the excess of water. Bromine purified by such method is chlorine free. Finally, bromine could be dried over calcium bromide and calcium oxide or phosphorus dioxide and then distilled in a current of carbon dioxide.
The war gases chemistry and analysis, by M. Sartory, 38, 1939
Preparation of elemental bromine is presented in the following video by Doug’s Lab.
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BROMINE, Bromine water, CID24408, 7726-95-6