Synthesis of ammonium nitrate

Preparation of ammonium nitrate

Alternative Names: Nitric acid ammonium salt; Ammonium nitricum; Ammonium saltpeter; Nitrate of ammonia;

Preparation of ammonium nitrate

Preparation of ammonium nitrate

Ammonium nitrate is usually prepared by neutralizing dilute nitric acid with ammonium hydroxide or ammonium carbonate. 100 ml of water and 60 ml of the concentrated nitric acid are added into an evaporating dish of sufficient capacity to hold the solution of the entire amount of the ammonium nitrate to be made. A piece of litmus paper is placed in the evaporating dish and concentrated ammonia is droped very slowly, with constant stirring, until the litmus shows just neutral reaction. Another 50 ml of concentrated nitric acid are added and again treated with ammonia to neutrality, and so on until the bulk of the liquid becomes 600 to 700 ml. Then the amount of concentrated nitric acid added at one time may be increased to 100-150 ml, until the entire quantity taken for the preparation has all been neutralized. Since the heat of the reaction is very intense, the dish must be kept cool by placing it in a tub or sink full of cold water. If the temperature is not kept down, volatilization of the ammonia, and, in the case of concentrated solution, possible decomposition of the ammonium nitrate will occur. Base all calculations in this preparation on the amount of nitric acid, as a small amount of the ammonia is unavoidably lost during the neutralization; but if the solution is always kept acid or barely neutral, this loss is very small. The obtained solution of ammonium nitrate is filtered and evaporated to saturation or to dryness, or brought to a density of 1.235 sp. gr. in the hot solution and allow it to cool. The long crystals of ammonium nitrate are filtered and dried. If crystals are not especially desired the solution may be evaporated directly to dryness, in which case a hard cake of crystalline structure is obtained. The yield should be at least 95% of the theory. Ammonium nitrate melts at 152° C, and decomposes at 210° C. By very careful heating at 190-200° C it may be sublimed. When dissolved in water considerable heat is absorbed, and hence it is sometimes used for cooling mixtures.

Inorganic chemical preparations, by Thorp, Frank Hall, 61-63, 1896

IUPAC Name

azanium;nitrate

InChI

InChI=1S/NO3.H3N/c2-1(3)4;/h;1H3/q-1;/p+1

InChI Key

DVARTQFDIMZBAA-UHFFFAOYSA-O

Canonical SMILES

[NH4+].[N+](=O)([O-])[O-]

MeSH Synonyms

ammonium nitrate

Depositor-Supplied Synonyms

AMMONIUM NITRATE, Nitric acid ammonium salt, Ammonium nitricum, Ammonium saltpeter, Nitrate of ammonia, 6484-52-2, Nitric acid, ammonium salt, Ammonium(I) nitrate (1:1), CHEBI:63038, Nitric acid ammonium salt (1:1), NCGC00091921-01, DSSTox_CID_9668, DSSTox_RID_78802, DSSTox_GSID_29668, 54378-28-8, CAS-6484-52-2, azanium nitrate, ammonium nitronate, Ammonium hydrogendinitrate, AC1L2LF6, KSC352S3B, T8YA51M7Y6, CHEMBL1500032, CTK2F2930, DVARTQFDIMZBAA-UHFFFAOYSA-O, MolPort-006-118-115, Nitric acid, ammonium salt (2:1), Tox21_111177, Tox21_202271, Tox21_303522, AKOS025295591, LS-1555, NCGC00091921-02, NCGC00257475-01, NCGC00259820-01, IN002134, IN016369, NITRIC ACID AMMONIUM SALT (2:1), RT-000207, FT-0622337, X5993, 3B4-2045, AMMONIUM NITRATE (PESTICIDE/FERTILIZER MIXTURE), Ammonium nitrate, liquid (hot concentrated solution) [UN2426] [Oxidizer], Ammonium nitrate, with >0.2% combustible substances, including any organic substance calculated as carbon, to the exclusion of any other added substance [UN0222] [Explosive 1.1D], Ammonium nitrate, with not >0.2% of combustible substances, including any organic substance calculated as carbon, to the exclusion of any other added substance [UN1942] [Oxidizer]

Removed Synonyms

Nitram, Norway saltpeter, Nitrato amonico, Herco prills, German saltpeter, Merco Prills, Varioform I, Nitrate d’ammonium, Caswell No. 045, Ammonium nitrate solution, Ammonium nitrate, solution, Nitrato amonico [Spanish], UNII-T8YA51M7Y6, Nitrate d’ammonium [French], HSDB 475, CID22985, EINECS 229-347-8, UN0222, UN1942, UN2426, EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 076101, Ammonium nitrate, urea solution (containing ammonia), Ammonium nitrate, urea solution (not containing ammonia), Ammonium nitrate solution (greater than 45% and less than 93%)

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