Synthesis of ammonia

Preparation of gaseous ammonia

Preparation of gaseous ammonia by heating ammonium hydroxide

One of the most convenient sources of gaseous ammonia is the strongest aqua ammonia. The simple application of heat suffices to drive off the ammonia which, when dried, is ready for use. The aqueous ammonia is placed in a flask fitted with a thistle-tube and a glass elbow. On gently warming, ammonia is driven off and passes through a gas washing-bottle containing a small quantity of strongest ammonia water, and then through a U-tube containing quicklime or fused soda-lime to dry the gas, which may be collected over mercury. Calcium chloride cannot be used to dry ammonia, as it forms a compound with the gas, and hence quicklime or soda-lime is recommended.

Chemical lecture experiments, by F. G. Benedict, 192, 1916.

Preparation of gaseous ammonia from ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide

Gaseous ammonia is prepared by gently heating crude ammonium chloride (or ammonium sulfate) with dry calcium hydroxide:

Preparation of ammonia

Preparation of ammonia

Powdered ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide in equal quantities (about 40 g. of each) are placed in a 300 ml Erlenmeyer flask fitted with a glass elbow. On the application of gentle heat ammonia is rapidly evolved. The gas may be dried by conducting it through a U-tube containing calcium oxide or fused soda-lime. Almost invariably this method of collecting the gas may be used. If gaseous ammonia is needed it must be caught by downward displacement of air, otherwise the ammonia gas is passed into water until saturated.

Chemical lecture experiments, by F. G. Benedict, 192-193, 1916.

Preparation of gaseous ammonia from ammonium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide

Strong ammonium hydroxide is allowed to drop from a separating-funnel upon solid potassium hydroxide, preferably in the stick form, in a 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask. The dropping-funnel is placed in a two-holed rubber stopper, and a glass elbow conducts away the gaseous ammonia liberated. In the process of the reaction the contents of the flask become very cold from the volatilization of ammonia, and consequently the gas is quite dry. However, in all experiments where a perfectly dry gas is required it should be first conducted through a U-tube containing dry quick lime or soda-lime.

Similarly, to make ammonia for laboratory use the strongest ammonia water is dropped on porous anhydrous calcium chloride, great heat is evolved during this operation and the ammonia gas which passes over is almost pure. Additionally ammonia could be dried by passing over solid potassium hydroxide.

Chemical lecture experiments, by F. G. Benedict, 191-192, 1916.

IUPAC Name

azane

InChI

InChI=1S/H3N/h1H3

InChI Key

QGZKDVFQNNGYKY-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Canonical SMILES

N

MeSH Synonyms

Ammonia

Depositor-Supplied Synonyms

ammonia, Ammonia gas, azane, Spirit of hartshorn, Nitro-sil, Ammoniakgas, Ammonia anhydrous, Anhydrous ammonia, Ammonia, anhydrous, AM-Fol, 7664-41-7, Ammoniak, Liquid Ammonia, Ammoniak Kconzentrierter, Amoniak [Polish], Ammoniac [French], Ammoniak [German], Ammoniaca [Italian], Caswell No. 041, ammoniac, primaeres Amin, tertiaeres Amin, Ammonia (conc 20% or greater), sekundaeres Amin, NH3, (13n)ammonia, (15n)ammonia, CCRIS 2278, HSDB 162, AMINO GROUP, UN 2073 (>44% solution), UN1005, EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 005302, R 717, UNII-5138Q19F1X, CHEBI:16134, UN 1005 (anhydrous gas or >50% solution), UN 2672 (between 12% and 44% solution), QGZKDVFQNNGYKY-UHFFFAOYSA-N, EINECS 231-635-3, Unknown Atom Or Ion, Ammonia-14N, alkylamine, Nitrogen, atomic, 3589-23-9, Ammonia (includes anhydrous ammonia and aqueous ammonia from water dissociable ammonium salts and other sources; 10% of total aqueous ammonia is reportable under this listing), Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied or ammonia solutions, relative density 50% ammonia [UN1005] [Nonflammable gas], Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied or ammonia solutions, relative density 50% ammonia [UN1005] [Poison gas, Corrosive], NH2, amoniaco, Ammoniaca, Amoniak, primary amines, tertiary amines, Primary amine, ammonia-, secondary amines, Ammonia inhalant, Ammoniacum gummi, Hydrogen nitride, anyhydrous ammonia, Trihydrogen nitride, UNX, Refrigerent R717, (2H2)amino, 13981-22-1, Dowex® MWA-1, (Aminomethyl)polystyrene, ACMC-1BKZC, Ammonia spirit, aromatic, Ammonia (8CI,9CI), Ammonia water (JP15), Aromatic ammonia vaporole, Benzylamine polymer-bound, R2NH, InChI=1/H3N/h1H, Aromatic Ammonia, Vaporole, Dowex® 66 free base, MP-NH2, R-NH2, Aminomethyl Polystyrene Resin, 3-Amino-4-imino-rifamycin S, Ammonia solution strong (NF), AMINO SUBSTITUTION GROUP, Ammonia solution strong [usan], 294993_ALDRICH, 392685_ALDRICH, 392693_ALDRICH, 407666_ALDRICH, 451959_ALDRICH, AC1L18R4, Ammonia solution, strong (NF), CHEMBL1160819, CHEBI:13759, CHEBI:32863, CHEBI:32876, CHEBI:32877, CTK0I1955, HMDB00051, Ammonia solution, strong [USAN], QJGQUHMNIGDVPM-UHFFFAOYSA-N, [NH3], KST-1A1462, KST-1A4187, NH(3), StratoSpheres™ PL-AMS resin, 341428_SIAL, 392685_SIAL, 392693_SIAL, 407666_SIAL, 499145_SIAL, ACT02989, AR-1A0498, AR-1A0531, AKOS015916403, 5138Q19F1X, RTR-024530, 17778-88-0, LS-16633, SC-46302, Dowex® Marathon™ WBA free base, TR-024530, FT-0632293, FT-0634086, FT-0638671, R-717, D02916, ScavengePore™ aminomethylated polystyrene, Poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene), aminomethylated, Poly(styrene-co-vinylbenzylamine-co-divinylbenzene, 3B4-1575, MP Poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene), amino-methylated, I14-51744, Polystyrene crosslinked with divinylbenzene, aminomethylated, 208990-07-2, 214478-05-4, 558443-52-0, 63993-67-9, 8007-57-6, Ammonia (includes anhydrous ammonia and aqueous ammonia from water dissociable ammonium salts and other sources 10% of total aqueous ammonia is reportable under this listing), Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied or ammonia solutions, relative density 50% ammonia, Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied or ammonia solutions, relative density 50% ammonia [UN1005] [Nonflammable gas], Ammonia, anhydrous, liquefied or ammonia solutions, relative density 50% ammonia [UN1005] [Poison gas, Corrosive], R3N

Removed Synonyms

Ammonia solution, Ammonia water, Nitrogen, Ammonium ion, Nitrogen atom, AM-polystyrene, Nitrogen hydride, Nitrogen radical, ammonium hydroxide, Ammonia solution, strong, Ammonium bromide-81Br, RCH2NH2, CID222, EPA-E5243936, phosphoaminophosphonic acid-adenylate ester, A1884, A2038, A2236, A2237, A6790, C00014, D000641, 1455-20-5, 104-88-1, 1336-21-6, 15117-84-7, 15194-15-7, 62041-01-4, 69011-17-2, 82168-61-4, ANP, NH, NH4

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